At present, China's waste electrical and electronic product processing industry is still at the low end of the value chain. Most companies mainly focus on simple dismantling, classification, and sorting. They have failed to realize high value utilization of various metals and non-metals. The resource properties of the property have not yet been fully demonstrated.
Editor's note: Since the implementation of regulations and policies such as the â€œRegulations on the Management of Waste Electrical and Electronic Products Recyclingâ€ and â€œAdministrative Measures on the Collection and Use of Waste Electrical and Electronic Products Processing Fundsâ€, the dismantling capacity of waste electrical and electronic products has increased by more than 20 times. The number of dismantling treatments has increased by more than 100 times. The Ministry of Environmental Protection, the Ministry of Finance, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and other ministries carried out inspections on the list of subsidized enterprises for waste electrical and electronic product processing funds in four batches. A total of 106 processing enterprises have obtained fund subsidy qualifications and various types of waste electrical appliances. The annual permit processing capacity of electronic products reached 127 million units. In order to further standardize the production and operation activities of waste electrical and electronic products processing enterprises and improve the level of environmental management, the Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology jointly issued the "Guidelines for Disposal of Discarded Electrical and Electronic Products and Production Management Guidelines (2015 Edition)". Secretary of the China Non-Ferrous Metals Industry Association, Recycling Metals Division, Ministry of Science and Technology, and Secretary General of the Academic Committee, Shang Huiliang, conducted an in-depth interpretation of the linkage development between the electronic waste disposal industry and the recycled metal industry after the implementation of the Guidelines.
The electronic waste treatment industry, which uses rare and precious metals and non-ferrous metals as its main target products and revenue points, has become an important component of China's renewable non-ferrous metals industry, with significant environmental and economic benefits.
The overall level needs to be improved
According to the relevant UN report, the annual global electronic waste generated is up to 50 million tons, and it is estimated that it will reach 65.4 million tons in 2017, and part of the electronic waste will come from discarded TVs or smart phones. Chinaâ€™s â€œfour machines and one brainâ€ (TVs, washing machines, refrigerators, air conditioners, and microcomputers) are at the peak of scrapping and relevant state encourages dismantling policies, and the growth rate of e-waste is even higher. In 2013, the nationwide recycling and dismantling of waste electrical appliances Electronic products exceeded 110 million units, an increase of 38.3% year-on-year, far higher than the global electronic waste growth rate (5% to 6%).
However, in the view of Shang Huiliang, director of the Ministry of Science and Technology of the China Nonferrous Metals Industry Association's Recycling Metals Division and Secretary of the Academic Committee, the dismantling industry for waste electrical and electronic products in China is still in the early stages of development, and competition for â€œhomogeneousâ€ companies is severe. Some companies deal with similar types, quantities, and processes of products, disassembled products are also not the same, and mutual competition within the industry reduces profit margins. The entire industry has imperfect relevant technical standards, dismantling classification and sorting technologies are relatively backward; dismantling processing operations are under norm, secondary pollution such as dust, noise, heavy metals and POPs is still serious; lack of experience in processing enterprises, staff quality is imperious To improve, the responsibility of e-waste management is not clear, and the management system is not perfect; individual localities and enterprises have defrauded fund subsidy and other issues, which have caused adverse effects on the emerging dismantling and disposal of discarded electrical and electronic products.
The Guide brings new opportunities
In response to the above problems, the "Disposal Electrical and Electronic Products Standard Dismantling Operations and Production Management Guide (2015 Edition)" (hereinafter referred to as the "Guide") from the management system, data information management, video surveillance settings, processing facilities and equipment, dismantling processing In terms of process standardization and dismantling product utilization and disposal, etc., detailed specifications and guidance are provided for waste electrical and electronic product processing fund subsidy enterprise dismantling operations and production management requirements, which will improve the overall level of the industry and promote the standardization of the industry. To a great impetus, while enhancing the industry profitability. The "Guide" will play a technical reference role in carrying out day-to-day supervision and fund subsidy review of enterprises at all levels of environmental protection departments.
Shang Huiliang said that at present, it is imperative to extend the deep processing industry chain under the premise of harmless disposal of electronic waste. Electronic waste has extremely high economic value and is highly valued in Europe and Japan. E-waste has become one of the important raw materials for Umicore, the world's largest precious metal producer. After a series of processing and recycling, 17 kinds of high-purity precious metals can be purified from electronic waste. The company's 2011 production value was 14.48 billion yuan. Euro, profit 2.29 billion euros. Although Japan is a country lacking in mineral resources, due to the development of e-waste recycling industries, Japanâ€™s gold exports (excluding gold processed products and currency) surged 34% to 122.8 tons in 2011 compared with 2010. These two cases illustrate that the recycling of e-waste is not only related to pollution prevention and control, but also related to the comprehensive utilization of resources and even the sustainable development of the national economy.
At present, China's waste electrical and electronic product processing industry is still at the low end of the value chain. Most companies mainly focus on simple dismantling, sorting, and sorting, and direct sales of crude products of various types, failing to realize various metal and non-ferrous metals. With the high value of metals, the resource properties of e-waste have not yet been fully demonstrated. In addition, China's waste electrical and electronic product processing industry pollution control is reflected in the front (dismantling), and easy to produce pollution links, such as non-ferrous metals and precious metals and non-metallic materials (plastics and epoxy resins, etc.) recycling, but by qualification Foreign companies are even engaged in self-employment and the pollution prevention and control system in the whole process has not yet been established. How to use the multi-metal mixture or alloy material in dismantling and recycling of e-waste dismantling and disassembling, and the rare metals in the hybrid electronic components are the development directions that waste electric and electronic product processing industries should focus on in the future.
In recent years, China has gradually increased its support for the scientific research and technological development of electronic waste disposal and disposal. During the â€œEleventh Five-Year Planâ€ period, it has established the National Science and Technology Support Program â€œDevelopment of Comprehensive Utilization Technology and Equipment for Waste Electrical and Mechanical Products and Plastic Resources. The project has achieved major breakthroughs in the disposal and disposal of electronic waste such as used household appliances and waste circuit boards, but it also includes waste mixed-use electronic components, lead-containing glass, thermoplastics, display screens and fluorescent lamp materials, and waste batteries. The research and industrialization of high-valued, clean use of polymetallic powders, magnetite wires, etc. are relatively rare. In order to solve the problem of deep processing of electronic waste, in 2014, the Ministry of Science and Technology initiated a project called â€œResearch and Demonstration of E-waste Cleaning Processing and Utilization Technologyâ€ in the National Science and Technology Support Program, which disassembles and disassembles waste electronic and electronic products. The development of key technologies and equipment is underpinned by the high value of clean use of components, display screens and fluorescent materials, multi-metal powders and magnet wires, used batteries (lead-acid batteries, nickel metal hydride batteries, and lithium-ion batteries). And applications will have a positive role in promoting and demonstrating the overall level of e-waste recycling in China. Recently, the Ministry of Science and Technology issued the Notice on Launching the â€œThirteenth Five-Year Planâ€ National Key R&D Program to Give Priority to the Proposal of Call for Major Research and Development Tasks (Kuoke Capital  No. 52), and carry out the priorities for the â€œThirteenth Five-Year Planâ€ priority start. The research and development task proposal recruitment work includes key research and development tasks that lead energy conservation and environmental protection and new energy development, as well as resource environment and ecological protection. For the qualified task suggestions, they will be consolidated according to the procedures and submitted for approval, and then included in the national key R&D plans to support them. In 2016, they will be implemented.
All is ready except for the opportunity"
With the acceleration of the process of industrialization and urbanization, the rigid demand for resources in China has further increased, and the importance of recycled metals as an important part of strategic emerging industries has been highlighted. The output of major non-ferrous metals in China has exceeded 10 million tons for three consecutive years, exceeding the total non-ferrous metal output of the country 10 years ago. The recycled metal industry has become an important component of China's non-ferrous metals industry. Waste and non-ferrous metals have good recycling performance, and great efforts have been made to make great contributions to the development and utilization of recycled metals in order to save primary mineral resources and energy, reduce pollutant emissions, and protect the environment. With the increase in the amount of social consumption savings, the proportion of recycled metals will increase year by year.
Shang Huiliang stated that in recent years, the level of technical equipment in China's recycled metal industry has been significantly improved, and some equipment has reached or approached the international advanced level, and the potential for industrial development has been significantly enhanced. On the one hand, the independent R&D capabilities of reclaimed metal companies have been improved, and a large number of international advanced technology and equipment have been introduced. The companyâ€™s independent innovation capability and core competitiveness have been continuously improved. It has achieved dismantling and processing, melting equipment, energy-saving technologies, and environmental protection processing. Positive progress. On the other hand, colleges and universities and scientific research institutes pay more attention to the development of key common technologies such as dismantling, sorting, smelting, energy saving, environmental protection, and comprehensive utilization of recycled metals, and the joint research of production, education, and research has been strengthened. China's recycling metal industry already has the relevant conditions for developing technologies and equipment for the recycling of electronic waste.
The white household appliance industry is one of the major downstream markets for non-ferrous metals such as copper and aluminum. Taking air conditioners as an example, copper accounts for about one fourth of its cost structure, and aluminum accounts for about one tenth. Taking refrigerators as an example, copper accounts for approximately One-sixth of the cost structure, aluminum accounted for one-twentieth. The energy-saving and environmental protection effects brought about by the dismantling and recycling of used household appliances, harmlessness, high value, and full-component clean utilization are very obvious. The production, consumption, and scrapping of household electrical appliances are closely linked with non-ferrous metals. In recent years, under the guidance of a series of policies such as the National Trade Renewal, the Extended Producer Responsibility System, and the Regulations on the Management of the Recycling of Waste Electrical and Electronic Products, a number of large-scale home appliance retailers and home appliance manufacturers have bid to build home appliances for recycling. Solutions companies have initially formed a waste household appliance recycling system consisting of production, sales, formal dismantling, and recycling.
Linkage development is imminent
Shang Huiliang stated that the development of the electronic waste disposal industry in China is only a decade old. Under the active promotion of ministries and commissions such as the Ministry of Environmental Protection, the Ministry of Finance, the National Development and Reform Commission, and the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the industry has begun to take shape. However, To achieve a win-win environment and resources to meet the country's strategic needs, but also long way to go.
Linking with recycled metals to develop new regulations for the dismantling of e-waste Currently, e-waste processing companies, related universities and research institutes have different focus of work, resulting in a lack of industry public service platforms, fragmentation of innovative resources, and scientific and technological achievements Inadequate translation and overall failure to form a synergy, if the establishment of a collaborative innovation center for the recycling of e-waste, promote the joint development of the electronic waste disposal industry and the recycled metal industry, and develop harmless and high-valued metal and non-metal resources in e-waste. To realize the win-win of the economic, social and environmental benefits of the electronic waste disposal and disposal industry, and tap the endogenous driving force for the development of the electronic waste disposal and disposal industry so as to realize the benign nature of the electronic waste treatment and disposal industry. development of.
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