Teach you DIY a quadcopter

1, diy four axes need to prepare what parts

Brushless motor (4)

Electronic governor (referred to as ESC, 4, commonly known as Haoying, Zhongweiwei, Xinxida, etc.)

Propeller (4, need 2 positive pulp, 2 counter-pulp)

Flight control board (common brands such as KK, FF, Yutu)

Battery (11.1v model power battery)

Remote Control (lowest four-channel remote control)

Rack (optional)

Charger (try to choose a balanced charger)

2. Wiring and simple explanation between four-axis parts

The positive and negative poles of the four ESCs need to be connected in parallel (red together, black one together) and connected to the positive and negative terminals of the battery;

ESC 3 black motor control lines connected to the motor;

The ESC has a BEC output for outputting a voltage of 5v, powering the flight control board, and receiving control signals from the flight control board;

The remote control receiver is connected to the flight controller, outputs a remote control signal, and simultaneously obtains 5v power supply from the flight control board;

[Basic Principles and Terminology Explanation]

1, remote control articles

What is a channel?

The channel is the number of action paths that can be controlled by the remote control. For example, the remote control can only control four axes to fly up and down, then it is one channel. However, the number of action paths that the four axes need to control during the control process are: up and down, left and right, front and rear, and rotation.

So the minimum 4 channel remote control. If you want to play aerial photography later, you need more remote controls.

What is the Japanese hand and the American hand?

The position of the throttle on the remote control is the Japanese hand on the right and the American hand on the left. The so-called remote control throttle controls the supply current in the quadcopter. The current is large, the motor rotates fast, and the fly is high and the power is high. The opposite is true. It is very simple to judge the throttle of the remote control. Among the two joysticks of the remote control, the one that does not automatically return to the middle after the upper and lower plates move is the throttle stick.

2, flight control board articles

Generally referred to as flight control is this thing.

The purpose of flight control?

If there is no flight control board, the four-axis aircraft will form an imbalance of flight power due to installation, external interference, inconsistency between parts, etc. The consequence is that the left and right, up and down, tumbling, can not fly at all, the role of the flight control board is Through the gyroscope on the flight control board, the four-axis flight state is quickly adjusted (both moments, don't want to use human flesh), if you find that the right side is strong, tilt to the left, then the right current output is weakened, and the motor becomes Slow, the lift becomes smaller, and naturally it will not tilt to the left.

What is x mode and + mode?

When buying a flight controller, the boss must ask this question. What is the model to buy? The above is the difference.

The X mode is hard to fly, but the action is more flexible. + mode is better to fly a little, the movement is a little more flexible, so it is suitable for beginners.

In particular, the flight control installation of the x mode and the + mode is different (I only have the kk flight control board, so I can only talk about kk flight control).

If the flight control board is installed incorrectly, it will shake sharply and it will not fly at all.

What flight control is good?

Personal opinion beginners first come to a kk flight control, the cheapest, taste a little enough.

Electric transfer

Why do you need an ESC?

The function of the ESC is to convert the control signal of the flight control board into the magnitude of the current to control the speed of the motor.

Because the current of the motor is very large, usually, when each motor works normally, there is an average current of about 3a. If there is no ESC, the flight control board cannot withstand such a large current (there is no driving of the brushless motor). Features).

At the same time, the ESC also acts as a voltage variator in the four axes, and the voltage of 11.1v is changed to 5v to supply power to the flight control board and the remote controller.

How big is the ESC?

The number of A will be marked by the ESC, such as 20a, 40a. This number is the current that the ESC can provide. The high current ESC is compatible with small currents. Small current ESC cannot be used beyond the standard.

According to my simple test, the maximum motor current of the new Xinda 2212 plus 1045 pulp may reach 5a. For the sake of safety, it is recommended to use 30a or 40a ESC (there are more 20a ESCs), say buy a little bigger. It can be used elsewhere in the future.

What does the four-axis dedicated ESC mean?

Because of the four-axis flight requirements, the ESC responds quickly, while the ESC has the difference between fast response and slow response, so the four-axis requires a fast-responding ESC.

In fact, most common ESCs are programmable and can be programmed to set the response speed. So in fact, there is nothing special to say.

What does electro-optic programming mean?

The first thing to note is that the ESC has many functional modes. Selecting this function is to program the ESC.

The programming method can directly connect the ESC to the throttle output channel of the remote control receiver (usually 3 channels). According to the manual, it can be set by moving the joystick on the remote controller. This method is troublesome but saves. In addition, it can also be set by the manufacturer's programming card (need to be purchased separately), the method is simple, no need to connect the remote control.

In order to be insured, it is necessary to set the ESC to be consistent, otherwise it will be difficult to control. For example, the startup mode of the ESC is not the same, then some of them are going very fast, and some are still very slow, which is a problem.

Note: To set the ESC through the remote control, be sure to connect the motor, because the sound of the “Drip” type mentioned in the manual is sent by the motor. I started because I didn't have a motor, and I wondered why I didn't have a sound. I thought it was broken.

Brushless motor and propeller

The motor is divided into a brush motor and a brushless motor. Don't buy the wrong one. The brushless is the mainstream of the four axes. It is powerful and durable.

What is the model type of the motor?

I often see what people say about 2212 motors, 2018 motors, etc. What does it mean? This is actually the size of the motor.

No matter what brand of motor, it must correspond to 4 digits of this type, the first 2 digits are the diameter of the rotor of the motor, and the second 2 digits are the height of the rotor of the motor. Note that it is not a shell.

Simply put, the larger the front 2 bits, the more fat the motor, the bigger the 2nd position, the higher the motor. The high and large motor has more power and is suitable for the big four axis. Usually the 2212 motor is the most common configuration.

What is the motor kv value?

Each brushless motor will have a standard kv value. This kv is the idling speed per minute corresponding to the 1v voltage. For example: 1000kv motor, plus 1v voltage, 1000 rpm per minute when the motor is idling, plus 2v voltage, the motor idling 2000 Sended.

What is the meaning of the paddle?

Similar to the motor, the paddle also has four digits of å•¥1045, 7040. The first two digits represent the diameter of the paddle (unit: inch 1 inch = 254 mm). The latter two are the angle of the paddle.

What is a positive and negative paddle, why do you need it?

Four-axis flight In order to offset the spin of the propeller, the direction of rotation of the paddles is different, so positive and negative paddles are required. The winds of the positive and negative blades are blowing downwards. Suitable for clockwise rotation is called positive slurry, and it is suitable for counter-clockwise rotation. When installing, be sure to remember that the front side of the word is upward (the rounded side of the blade should be in the same direction as the motor).

Matching motor and propeller

This is a very complicated problem, I am also researching myself, so it is recommended to use the common configuration, but the principle can be explained here.

The larger the propeller, the greater the lift, but the greater the force required to drive;

The higher the propeller speed, the greater the lift;

The smaller the kv of the motor, the greater the rotational force;

In summary, a large propeller requires a low-kv motor, and a small propeller requires a high-kv motor (because the speed is required to compensate for the lack of lift)

If the high kv has a large paddle and the power is not enough, then it is very difficult. Actually, it is still vulgar operation, and the motor and ESC are easy to burn.

If the low kv has a small paddle, there is no problem at all, but the lift is not enough, which may result in the inability to take off.

For example: commonly used 1000kv motor with 10 inch paddle.

Battery and charger articles

Why choose a lithium battery?

The same battery capacity is the lightest and the highest take-off efficiency.

What is the meaning of the battery when the mah?

Indicates battery capacity, such as 1000mah battery, if discharged at 1000ma, it can be discharged for 1 hour. If discharged at 500mh, it can be discharged for 2 hours.

What do you mean by 2s, 3s, 4s behind the battery?

Representing the number of lithium batteries, the standard voltage of the lithium battery is 3.7v, then the 2s battery means that there are 2 3.7v batteries inside, the voltage is 7.4v. What is the meaning of c behind the battery?

Representing the battery discharge capacity, this is the most important difference between a normal lithium battery and a power lithium battery. The power lithium battery requires a large current discharge. This discharge capacity is expressed by C. If the 1000mah battery standard is 5c, then with 5x1000mah, the battery can be discharged at a current intensity of 5000mh.

This is very important. If you use a low-c battery and discharge a large current, the battery will be quickly damaged or even self-ignited.

How much does c fast charge mean?

This is the same as c above, just turning the discharge into a charge, such as 1000mah battery, 2c fast charge, it means that you can charge with 2000ma current. Therefore, do not use a large current, and charge the battery beyond the specified parameters. The battery is easily damaged.

How to match the battery?

This is related to the selected motor, propeller, and desired flight time.

The larger the capacity, the higher the c, the more s, the heavier the battery;

The basic principle is to use large paddles, because the overall power is high, and the self-lift is large. In order to ensure playable time, high-capacity, high-c, 3s or more batteries can be selected. The minimum recommended is 1500mah, 20c, 3s.

Small four-axis, because its own lift is limited, the overall power is not high, you can consider small capacity, small c, 3s or less battery. (has not played, no advice)

What does it mean to balance charging?

Such as 3s battery, the internal is 3 lithium batteries, because of the manufacturing process, there is no way to ensure that each battery is completely consistent, the charging and discharging characteristics are different, in the case of battery in series, it is easy to discharge as usual or overcharge, charging Not full, etc., so the solution is to charge the internal single battery separately. Power lithium battery has 2 sets of lines, 1 set is the output line (2), 1 set is a single-cell lithium lead (related to the s number), according to the instructions when charging, are inserted into the charger, you can balance the charge .

Rack article

Is there any requirement for the length of the shaft of the rack?

In theory, as long as the four propellers do not fight, it is necessary to consider that the turbulent flow between the propellers due to the rotation affects each other. It is recommended not to be too close, otherwise the efficiency will be affected. This is one of the reasons why the four-bladed propeller is more than the three-bladed propeller for four-axis propellers (there is still a disadvantage of the three-leaf, the balance is not good)

[combat debugging]

After installing the four axes, I need to do some preparatory work. Here is an example of the kk flight control I used.

Kk flight control connection

Flight control unlock

The flight control is not ready to take off immediately. This is a safe design, so you need to unlock it. (Flight control settings are slightly, a lot of Raiders)

When the power is turned on, the light on the flight control board is not bright. Only the drip sound from the ESC will hit the throttle to the lowest (pay attention to the throttle direction. It needs to be determined whether the set is the lowest or the lowest). Then, the rudder to the right plate to the end, the lights of the flight control board will be on, and the ESC will not continue to sound, indicating that it is ready to take off.

Propeller installation

After the commissioning is completed, the propeller is finally installed. After installation, the first thing is to take the hand and lightly add the throttle to see if the wind is blowing down. The rotation of the motor is forward and reverse. If it is violently shaken and the lift is small, it should be that the positive and negative slurries are not installed. Exchange it. If the direction of rotation is not spaced, it is necessary to exchange the ESC and motor connection lines 1 and 3 for the direction of rotation correction. The order is, the first direction, the rear propeller.

Pay attention to battery over discharge

The ESC can be set to protect the battery from low voltage, but try not to charge it when the ESC is protected. This will extend the service life.

How do I know that I can take off normally?

Everything is ready, how do you know that you can fly? I personally recommend that in order to avoid haste, I will blow up. It is better to take a test flight first, but pay attention to the distance from the body.

Power on the hand, add the throttle, if everything is normal, the four axes will not shake sharply, but rather stable. You can also deliberately shake it around, and you will feel the counter-strength of the four-axis balance. As long as this effect is achieved, the test flight conditions are basically met. Kk flight control I reset several times, as long as there is no accident, it is basically successful.

It is recommended to choose the lawn for the flight test site. This should not be ruined.

Teach you DIY four-axis aircraft - basic articles

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